Nazca Lines Research
Challenging time and history, the Nazca lines remain unchanged since their remote builders drew them over the valley of the river that bears its name, to the south of Peru, extending majestically over an area of more than 500 square kilometers, in an area located between the Pacific Ocean and the Andes. It is a series of lines, geometric designs and abstract pictograms that have remained unchanged for almost three thousand years challenging science and archeology. They are made to be seen from the air. There are hundreds. Cross the deserted plateaus crossing the ravines and small valleys for miles. There are narrow, almost linear, and short, in the form of squares or trapezes. Some seem to diverge from one common starting point, others run solitary, going from nowhere to nowhere. Next to them, forming part of the same immense board of drawings, you can see figures of gigantic animals, traced with geometric precision. The 46-meter long spider has perfect symmetry. Some, like a bird's, go well beyond 100 meters. They are done in a schematic way, but its simplicity manifests a refined synthesis to which only the artist arrives after a long time.
How they were built? For whom? What for?
The first news on the existence and meaning of these geoglyphs goes back to the Spanish conquest. Pedro Cieza de León, the celebrated chronicler of Peru, tells the visit that Pizarro did about 1537 to the Nazca area. The chronicler mentions in his description “some signs in some parts of the desert near Nazca ...... so that the communities of Indians find the way to follow”. Francisco Hernández, a contemporary soldier of Cieza de Leon also mentions them: "the Indians traced large lines on the ground”. It was the Spanish corregidor, Luis de Monzón, who inspired in his chronicles in the late sixteenth century, the version unanimously accepted by the Indian elders of the Pampa what"they recognized the Wiracochas as the cause and motive that had led to the execution of the lines and figures". And who were the Wiracochas? According to the chronicles, an ethnic and minority group, descending of the mythical man-god Wiracocha, arrived from the skies and that he had to instruct a part of the Andean towns. The first archaeologists to note these anomalies in the region were Alfred Kroeber and Toribio Mejía in 1926. The analysis of these scholars naturally was flush with soil and unable to grasp its true real dimension. Paul Kosok (1896-1959) was an American anthropologist, a paleoirrigation specialist at Long Island University, who investigated the Nazca lines from the 1930s through the late 1950s. His archaeological investigations sought to explain prehistoric irrigation in the valleys of the Peruvian coast. Used aerial photographs of the Shippee-Johnson Expedition (George R. Johnson, Peru from the Air, American Geographical Society, 1930) and from 1944 used aerial photographs of the United States Army and Lima Aircraft Service. By the Carbon-14 technique it was established in 550 years d. C. and in 1941 proposed the hypothesis that the lines were calendrical and astronomical signs, called the lines "The calendar of greater scale in the world". Kosok returned to his country in 1949, his companion Maria Reiche continued his investigations on the lines of Nazca. Kosok and Reich advanced one of the first explanations given on the Nazca lines, which were intended to point to the sun and the celestial bodies in the distant horizon.
Maria Reiche La Dama de la Pampa
Maria Reiche graduated in mathematics from the Technische Hochschule Dresden, was the most controversial researcher on all the works carried out in the Nazca desert that the lines represented the largest calendar in the world. He spent his whole life studying, measuring and orienting the geoglyphs by establishing a relationship between them and the position with respect to the stars, coming to the conclusion among others that they were used to determine the time of the year most suitable for planting And the harvest as well as for the flood of rivers.
"It would take a very poor opinion of the ancestors, presumably that all this immense and thoroughly accurate and detailed work done with painstaking perfection, had the unique purpose of a primitive superstition or a sterile worship of ancestors. Otherwise, we have a testimony on a large scale and unique in the world of the first awakening of the exact sciences in the evolution of humanity, gigantic effort of the primitive mind is reflected in the grandeur of the execution under the vast sky and the immense solitarie pampas, windswept and sunburned" Maria Reiche
Other approaches and new challenges
With all due respect to the works of Mrs. Maria Reich as many other researchers, we think that all interpretations that have been made about the meaning of the Nazca lines are far from reality and purpose of its builders. When flying over Nazca, it is enough to observe the immensity of this desert to where these lines are observable to realize that their whole is chaotic; Some end up abruptly, others intersect in any direction, some are lost in front of the coast towards the Pacific Ocean, there are others that are directed towards the Andean mountain range, being impossible to determine that its design and utility are only astronomical. All of this without forgetting that many of the lines appear on other older, barely visible, that point to different directions.
Investigations and works by Anselm Pi Rambla and Bohic Ruz Explorer
All that pampa is covered by small stones and pebbles of dark color by the oxidation. Below, the floor is yellowish, much lighter. Those who drew the lines and drawings had to do nothing other than remove that surface layer of stones and expose the clearest underneath. In other words they simply "scratched" the earth with furrows a few inches deep. The scarce rains of this area, one of the driest on the planet, and the lack of obstacles to the wind, which releases its sand about a hundred kilometers to the north, make the drawings are maintained almost indefinitely. To these two factors can be added the content of gypsum of the land, which, thanks to the dew, makes the small stones remain slightly adhered to the ground. We have done many reconnaissance flights in an area from Paracas to beyond Nazca and we have observed many lines that still today have not been discovered or analyzed by official science. Observing this true chaos one realizes that the different interpretations that have been made on Nazca are far from the reality of what they are and for which they were constructed. We are convinced and this is where our work points out that it is necessary and essential to combine many more research disciplines such as studies of history, ancient symbology, geological studies, archaeastronomic and the latest advances in underground remote sensing systems among others.
Nazca Fosse Archaeological remains
The push of the Pacific plate against the Atlantic plate causes the Andes to rise more and more. When the earth's crust is folded into one of its inflection points such as the FOSSE OF NAZCA, ancient archaeological remains of the area may have been thrown into the oceanic abyss. As a notable example of this we can cite the photographs of the "Milne-Edwards" pit taken by the doctor Menzies, Of the University of Duke, from the oceanographic ship Antón Bruun in 1965, off the coast of Peru. The sonar recordings made in this area indicated very strange configurations in the ocean floor, which was apparently a muddy surface. The photographs taken at a depth of 2000 meters showed what looked like huge pillars and walls, some covered with calligraphic signs. When they tried to take other photographs they noticed that although the position of the special chamber was modified by the submarine currents, other plates of rocks with artificial forms were obtained that lay on the sides, and some of them in piles, as if they had rolled one on top other. This happened at a time when many archaeological remains sank to a depth of more than 1500 meters at the bottom of the sea. Although this incident shows one of the deepest depths of the ocean in which ruins have been found, it is probable that future underwater explorations, carried out at the same or similar depths, will provide definite evidence, in the relatively near future, of the existence of civilizations Whose remains lie now at the depth of the world's oceans.